Landscaping is an aesthetic branch of Horticulture, which deals with planting of ornamental plants in such a way that it creates a picturesque effect.  Landscape gardening can also be defined as the beautification of a tract of land having a house or other object of interest on it.  It is done with a view to create a natural scene by the planting of lawn, trees and shrubs.  Further, landscape gardening is both an art and science of the establishment of a ground in such a way that it gives an effect of a natural landscape.  It can also be defined as “improving of total living environment for the people”.
  Trees can be classified into two groups namely, shade (or foliage) and ornamental trees and flowering trees. The line of demarcation between the two groups may sometimes get blurred. In the first group, only those trees are included which are planted for their showy ornamental foliage or for shade and which are either non flowering (e.g., Cone bearing gymnosperms) or bear inconspicuous flowers. In the second group are included trees bearing showy and ornamental flowers.
Trees can be used in gardens as specimen, avenue plantation, wind break and screening of less pleasing sites, and offer privacy. They provide shade and shelter and also reduce heat during hot summer.
Shade and ornamental trees tress

Botanical name


Common name


Albizzia lebbek


Vahai, Siris tree, Lebbek tree, Womans tongue tree

Deciduous, fast growing and spreading tree with thin feathery foliage. Resistant to drought.

Alstonia scholaris


Devils tree

Elegant tree with whorled branches. Produces drumstick like fruits during summer

Anthocephalus cadamba



Tall tree with spreading crown and drooping branches. Flowers are ball like.

Azadirachta indica



Medium sized ever green tree with foliage light green, serrated leave. Recommended as a avenue tree for high ways.

Callophyllum inophyllum


Alexandrian laurel, Dilo oil tree

Greek ‘Kalos” meaning beautiful and “phyllon” means leaf and “inophyllum” means with strongly nerved leaves. The tree is more attractive for its large and shining leaves.

Causuarina equisettifolia


Beef wood, she oak tree.

Suitable for growing in dry and hot tracts and is quick growing.

Dalbergia sissoo


Sissoo tree.

Plant can stand drought as well as submerged conditions for a fairly long duration.

Eucalyptus spp.


Blue gum tree

It draws enormous amount of water from the soil. Grown as wind break at a spacing of 5 -8 m.

Ficus bengalensis



Huge tree with aerial roots originating from the branches strike into the soil and gives a columnar support to the immense head of foliage.

Ficus benjamina


Java fig tree, Golden fig.

Evergreen tree with drooping branches. The globose fruits when ripe are very ornamental.

Ficus elastica


Indian Rubber Tree

Quick growing often reaching 15 to 60 m height, smooth shining leaves. Young leaves remain enclosed in a pinkish stipule giving the plant an ornamental look.

Filicium decipiens


Fern leaved tree.

Ornamental tree with attractive foliage.

Grevillea robusta


Silver oak

Evergreen tree with finely divided fern like leaves, the under surface of which is silvery downy.

Fruit trees for avenues

Botanical name and family


Common name


Averrhoea carambola


Carambola tree

Medium sized tree and very ornamental

Eugenia jambolana



Tall and spreading tree and propagated through seeds

Mangifera indica




Phyllanthus emblica



Ornamental tree suitable road side planting

Tamarindus indica



Large tree suitable for road side planting.

Botanical name and family

Family  & Common name

Flower colour and flowering time


Amherstia nobilis

(Queen of flowering trees)

Vermilion coloured raceme with yellow flowers
(February – May)

Medium sized spreading tree  and young leaves remain folded with purplish coppery hue

Bauhinia purpurea

(Purple bauhinia or geranium tree)

Rosy purple or lilac or deep pink

Medium sized evergreen tree with clawed or pointed flowers which are large and showy

Callistemon lanceolatus

(Bottle brush tree)

Brilliant Crimson Scarlet
(April May and Aug –Sep)

A small tree with narrow lanceolate leaves and weeping branches, propagated from seeds or layers

Cassia fistula

(Sarakonnai or Golden shower)

Bright yellow flower
(February – May)

Medium size beautiful tree with long pendulous racemes, propagated by seed and suckers

Erythrina indica

(Kalyan Murungai or Indian coral tree)

Scarlet red flowers

Propagated by seed and cuttings

Delonix regia

Gul Mohar

Orange scarlet flowers

Raised from seed

Jacaranda mimosifolia


Blue colour
(March – May)

Deciduous often grows to 10 m. height, pretty foliage, feathery 

Lagerstroemia flosreginae (Syn. L. speciosa)

Pride of India

Mauve coloured flowers
(April –May)

A large deciduous tree, easily propagated from seeds

Michelia champaca

Leguminosae Shembagam

Light yellow whitish and red flowers
(April - May and Sept - October)

Seedling takes three years to bloom

Melia azedarach

Persian Lilac

Lilac flower
(March – May)

Deciduous 15 to 20 feet height, bipinnate leaves small heliotropic scented lilac flowers in large panicle

Mellingtonia hortensis

Indian cork tree or tree jasmine

Fragrant pure with jasmine like flowers
(June – Nov)

A tall stately rapid growing tree, propagated from seed or by sucker

Parkia biglandulosa

Leguminosae Badminton ball tree

White flower
(April – May)

Pretty foliage, pinnate leaves, small white flowers with long peduncle, propagation from seed

Peltophorum ferrugineum

Copper shield

Pale yellow colour
(April – May)

Quick growing tree, fine graceful feather foliage, pinnate leaves, raised from seed

Plumeria alba

Pagoda tree or temple tree

White colour
Throughout the year

Handsome trees with architectural shapes and fragrant flowers. Evergreen species gives waxy white flowers throughout the year

Plumeria rubra

Pagoda tree or temple tree

Red colour
Throughout the year

Handsome trees with architectural shapes and fragrant flowers. Evergreen species gives waxy red flowers throughout the year

Spathodea campanulata

Indian Tulip

Orange, Scarlet flowers
(June – July)

Leaves are glossy and bright green raised from seed

Tabebuia rosea


Pale mauve coloured flowers

Good avenue tree

Tabebuia avalandi


Mauve flowers (November  - January)

Umbrella shaped tree and a good specimen tree for gardens

Arboretum:    Growing of different species of trees in one place is called ‘arboretum’.  The trees form the main frame work of the garden. 
Shrubs are defined as woody or semi woody perennial plants, the branches of which arise from the base of the plant and grow up to a height ranging from 50 cm to 4 m.
Shrubs are very important in the garden as flowering shrubs produce beautiful flowers at eye level.  They display their varied beauty by way of richly coloured flowers, handsome foliage and their shape. They form the frame work of garden as they are semi permanent in character.
Shrubbery border
In the garden, to secure privacy and provide partition, shrubbery can be preferred. E.g.,  Duranta, Lawsonia etc.

    • They are important garden plants not only because of the large number of cultivated species and varieties but also due to the wide range of variation in the shape and size of the plants.
    • They fit very well to home gardens in cities and towns.
    • Shrubs act as a foundation plant in the buildings.
    • Flowering can be seen throughout the year from one or other plant.
    • They can be used as a hedge, fencing and also for topiary. E.g., Hibiscus, Divi Divi, Thevatia, Casuarina, etc.
    • They can also be grown as potted plants.

    Botanical Name


    Colour of the flowers

    Acalypha hispida


    Long drooping spikes of crimson red flowers and the foliage is copper coloured and variegated.

    Adenium obesum


    Succulent stem and flowers is funnel shaped. Slow growing plant ideal for pots.

    Allamanda grandiflora


    Yellow funnel shaped flowers

    Artabotrys odoratissimus


    Scented flowers, green and turn to yellow on ripening



    Quite hardy plants and can be grown in plains.

    Barleria cristata


    Flowers are pink, violet, yellow in colours

    Beloperone guttata


    Terracotta red orderly arranged showy bracts

    Bauhinia tomentosa


    Sulphur yellow in colour

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima


    Bushy shrub with few scattered prickles. Shrub gives orange scarlet flowers.

    Camellia japonica


    Double flowers with white, rose or pink colour

    Cestrum nocturnum


    Scented flowers at night

    Cestrum diurnum


    Evergreen plants, bears white flowers during day time

    Clerodendron inerme


    White flowers

    Cassia alata


    Yellow flowers during winter



    Hardy suitable for shrubbery with yellow or pale lilac or brick red  or orange flowers

    Cuphea jorullensis


    Much branched shrub with yellow tipped scarlet minute flowers

    Dombeya spectabilis


    Cream/deep pink flowers

    Duranta plumieri


    Blue flowers

    Eranthemum bicolour


    Plants with colourful foliage and grows well in shady and semi shady areas

    Hamelia patens


    Orange red flowers

    Hibiscus rosasinensis


    Mostly red in colour, yellow, pink and orange colours also available

    Hibiscus mutabilis


    Flowers fade from pink to crimson

    Holmskioldia sanguinea


    Peculiar orange red flowers



    Flowers borne in round heads of white, pink or blue.



    Bears large terminal trusses of flowers in white, yellow, pink, orange, scarlet and orange scarlet colour.

    Lantana camera


    Common weed but can be grown as shrubbery along paths and roads

    Lawsonia inermis


    Bears white scented flowers followed by profused bearing of berries

    Nerium oleander


    Single or double in rosy pink colour



    Bushy shrub with cane like stems. Bears sweet scented flowers and are white, pink deep red and cream in colour.

    Pentas cornea


    Red, pink or violet colour

    Poinsettia pulcherrima


    Red or orange colour

    Tecoma stans


    Yellow colour flowers

    Thevetia nereifolia


    Yellow colour flowers

    Tabernamontana coronaria


    White colour flowers

    Tephrosia candida


    White or reddish pea shaped flowers

    Thunbergia erecta


    Dark blue flowers

                Climbers are an important group of ornamental plants.  The beauty of any garden can greatly be enhanced by carefully selecting and planting them in suitable places.  Plants which have special structure to climb on supports are defined as climbers.

    Botanical Name
    & Family

    Common name


    Adenocalymma alliaceum

    Garlic vine

    Heavy evergreen climber with shiny leathery foliage and large trumpet shaped pink flowers blooming during March to June

    Allamanda cathartica var grandiflora (Apocynaceae)


    Flowers are large, yellow and scented and bloom almost round the year

    Antigonon leptopus (Polygonaceae)

    Coral vine

    Tuberous rooted quick growing climber, bearing rose coloured flowers in great abundance. Flowers throughout the year.

    Artabotrys odoratissimus (Annonaceae)


    Large woody climber or half scandent shrub. Flowers are solitary, greenish yellow in colour when ripe and gives a strong scent resembling that of 

    Beaumontia grandiflora (Apocynaceae)

    Nepal Trumpet climber

    Quick growing ornamental climber with woody stem and large shiny foliage. Gives out white trumpet shaped lily like flowers with faint scent.

    Clerodendron splendens (Verbanaceae)


    Dwarf growing climber with dark green leaves and bears dazzling crimson coloured flowers.

    Clitoria ternatea (Leguminosae)


    Summer growing perennial climber with a woody base, can climb tall grasses and crops. Leaves are elliptic to narrowly lanceolate and Flowers solitary, attractive, deep blue, occasionally pure white,

    Ipomea cairica (Convolvulaceae)

    Railway creeper

    Quick growing climber with palmate light green colour. Produces purple coloured flowers with large corolla tube.

    Jacquemontia pentantha (Convolvulaceae)


    Light and neat climber grows on trellis and arbours with bell shaped violet blue coloured flowers throughout the year.

    Petrea volubilis (Verbanaceae)

    Purple wreath

    Woody shrubby climber with wreath like spikes of star shaped light mauve flowers during summer

    Porana paniculata (Convolvulaceae)

    Bridal bouquet

    Strong shrubby climber having large dark green heart shaped leaves and white fragrant small flowers in abundance

    Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae)

    Rangoon creeper

    Widely grown and hardy climber. Curved spines enable it to climb and flowers are white at the time of opening but gradually turn into pink and reddish and hence white and pinkish flowers are seen together

    Thunbergia grandiflora (Acanthaceae)

    Heavenly blue , clock vine

    Extensively growing heavy climber with dense foliage and lovely bell shaped blue coloured flowers with yellow shades inside it.

    Vallaris heynei (Apocynaceae)


    Evergreen climber with pretty foliage and bears white fragrant flowers.

    Vernonia elaegnaefolia (Compositae)


    Quick growing evergreen limber and useful for screening. The branches are pendulous hang close to their support thus forming a neat screen. The flowers are white in colour but insignificant

    Bougainvillea spp. (Nyctaginaceae)


    Versatile plant and can be used like bush, standard bush, climber, hedge, pot plant, bonsai, ground cover for sloppy land.

    The large family of palms (Palmae) is pre-eminent in the plant world for their grandeur, which is especially remarkable in regions where palms grow naturally to their full luxuriance. Linnaeus appropriately styled them" Princes of the vegetable kingdom." There are some 1,150 species of palms known and more doubt less still remain to be discovered. They may be divided into two main classes: (l) feather or pinnate leaved and (2) fan or flabelliform leaved. About two thirds of the species come under the former class. Most palms have upright, straight, unbranched stems, many reaching a great height. Some are bushy, throwing out numerous stems from the base. E.g., Chrysalidocarpus, Ptychosperma, species of Licuala, etc. while others as Chamaedorea, are dwarf, flowering and fruiting at a height of but a few feet. A few are naturally branched or forked, as the Doum Palm (Hyphaene). Some have bent stems, as in coconut; others are enormous climbers, e.g. Calamus. Palms are either wind or insect pollinated or both. Some are dioecious e.g. Date palm, Palmyra, Lodoicea and Phytelephas and others monoecious, as the Coconut and Oil palm.

    Pinnate leaved palms

    Acanthophoenix crinita

    Thorny stems

    Acanthoriza aculeata

    30-40 ft. Spiny aerial roots on stem

    Acrocomia sclerocarpa

    Macaw Palm. Stout erect stem, 40-50 ft. Very spiny; spines 3-4 in long.

    Archontophoenix alexandrae

    Handsome sp., flowers in large white panicles

    A. cunninghami

    40-50 ft.

    Areca catechu

    Arecanut; Betel palm

    A .concinna

    Ceylon. Small slender stem

    Arenga saccharifera

    Gomuti- or Sugar-palm. Leaves up to 25 ft. or more in length; pinnate, 2-3 ft. by 3 in. broad. Very large, handsome species

    Astrocaryum rostratum

    Petioles very spiny

    Attalea cohune

    Cohune Palm. Honduras. 50-60 ft. Bears very large spadix

    Bactris (Guilielma) utilis

    Peach nut; Pejibaye; Pewa; Pupunha. Slender stems; whole
    palm spiny, 30-40 ft. Fruit in clusters, reddish-yellow, eaten boiled with salt or roasted

    Bentinckia condapanna

    Slender sp. about 30 ft. high

    Calyptrocalyx spicatus

    30-40 ft. Bright red berries on long spikes

    Feather leaved palms

    Caryota cumingii

    Handsome genus with bi-pinnate leaves

    C. urens

    Toddy Palm. Handsome, bi-pinnate leaves; 50-60 ft. Flowering spadices 7-9 ft. long, in huge bunches

    Chamaedorea elegans

    Dwarf, single stem; flowers when 2-3 ft. high

    Chrysalidocarpus lutescens

    Cane Palm. Many stems; handsome, fine, feathery leaves
    excellent for pot culture

    Cocos flexuosa

    30-40 ft. Handsome feathery leaves

    C. nucifera.
    C. plumosa and
    C. schizophylla

    Coconut Palm Handsome palms, 40-50 ft.

    C. weddelliana

    Small elegant sp. with fine pinnate

    Cyrtostachys renda

    Sealing wax palm; Pinang-rajah. Bright red leaf-sheaths, numerous stems

    Desmoncus major

    Climbing palm, very spiny; small, round, red fruit

    Diplothemium caudescens

    Very handsome, small palm. 10-12 ft

    Elaeis guineensis

    Oil Palm

    Euterpe edulis

    Tender stem tops edible, used as a vegetable in Brazil, etc

    Guilielma speciosa

    Peach palm; Pejibaye

    Hydriastele wendlandiana

    Slender palm; small round, scarlet fruit

    Kentia (Howea) australis;
    K. belmoreana; and
    K. forsteriana

    Single stem, handsome pinnate leaves; favourite palms for pot culture in Europe, etc.

    Manicaria saccifera

    Bussu Palm

    Metroxylon Rumphii

    Prickly sago palm

    Myrialepis Scortechnii

    Strong growing climber, spiny leaves and stem

    Nephrosperma vanhoutteana

    Erect, slender stem

    Nipa fruticans

    Nipa; Water palm. See sugar palms

    Oncosperma fasciculate,
     O. filamentosa

    Nibung palm. Many stems; handsome, drooping pinnate

    Oreodoxa oleracea

    Palmiste. Cabbage Palm. 80-100 ft., very stately, cylindrical stem;effective in avenues. Top part edible

    O. regia

    Royal palm; Bottle palm. Stem usually barrel-shaped. Tender top portion edible, commonly used as a vegetable

    Phoenix dactylifera

    Date palm

    Wallichia disticha

    Fan-shaped feathery Palm

    Rhopaloblaste hexandra

    80-100 ft., single, slender stem; narrow pinnate, ornamental in
    small state

    Fan Leaved Palms

    Borassus flabellifer

    Palmyra palm

    Copernicia cerifera

    Carnauba wax palm

    Corypha umbraculifera

    Talipot palm

    Hyphaene thebaica

    Doum palm. One of the few branching palms. 30-40 ft. Fruit edible

    Latania Commersoni

    40-50 ft. L. purplish, glaucous

    Licuala elegans

    Small sp. with many stems; petioles prickly

    L. gracilis

    Bushy, 5-7 ft

    L. (Pritchardia) grandis

    Single stem. 6-8 ft. Leaves almost circular, pleated fan like; very elegant.

    Livistona altissima

    60-80 ft.; petioles prickly; berries scarlet

    Stevensonia grandifolia

    40-50 ft., single stem; leaves. spiny, reddish tint when young

    Sub tropical palms

    Brahea dulcis

    Fan leaved, dwarf sp

    Chamaerops fortunei (Trachycarpus excelsus).

    Fan leaved


    Fan leaved, dwarf sp., only European palm

    Nannorhops ritcheana

    Small bushy palm. Leaves used for fans, baskets, etc.

    Rhapis flabelliformis

    Small slender palm, numerous stems; used for walking sticks

    Rhopalostylis(Areca) sapida

    Nikau palm. Small, pinnate leaved

    Trachycarpus excels

    Fan leaved, dwarf sp.

    Washingtonia filifera

    Handsome fan leaved; copiously furnished with long, creamy white, filiform threads. elegant, fan leaf margins


    • Plants can be a beautiful and unique way to add a decorative touch to any room in a home or office. For a beautiful centerpiece, use plants with colorful foliage or blooming plants.
    • Common indoor houseplants may provide a valuable weapon in the fight against rising levels of indoor air pollution, by absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen so they do actually clean the air.


    Botanical Name & Family

    Common name


    Aglaonema sp (Araceae)


    Plants have an erect habit with long, slender pointed leaves with depressed lateral veins and corrugated appearance. A. costatum has white spotted leaves.

    Anthurium sp


    This genus comprises more than 200 species which are valued for ornamental leaves and colourful spathes which are rigid and waxy. Plants are rhizomatous and can be propagated through division.



    Leafy bushy shrub with leafs coarsely toothed.

    Asparagus plumosus (Liliacea)

    Asparagus fern

    Beautiful foliage plant with numerous horizontal spreading branches and bristle like leaves.

    Begonia (Begoniaceae)

    Elephants ear or beef steak geraniums

    Large handsome ornamental foliage plant. Grows well in a humid and shaded conservatory. Flowers are beautiful resembling roses but the texture is finer. The margin of the petals may be plain, fringed or fimbriated.

    Caladium (Araceae)


    Popular indoor plant valued for its highly ornamental foliage. The leaves are broadly arrow shaped and membranous in texture. The colour of the leaves vary from white to purple, bronze, pink and deep crimson and blotched, splashed and spotted with conspicuous colours.

    Codiaeum (Euphorbiaceae)


    Popular ornamental shrub with colourful and attractively shaped leaves. The plants are hardy in nature.

    Coleus (Labiatae)


    Perennial herbaceous plant grown for its colourful foliage. Grown commonly as pot plant.

    Colocasia (Araceae)


    Tuberous rooted herb similar to alocasias.

    Dracaena (Liliaceae)


    Evergreen shrubs or trees known for their richly coloured foliage including variegated forms.

    Pleomele reflexa variegata

    Song of India

    Strikingly beautiful plants and leaves are leathery, densely clustering, short, narrow, margined by two broad bands of yellow or cream.

    Ficus elastica (Moraceae)

    Indian Rubber plant

    Plant is with showy large leathery oblong shaped leaf deep green in colour and the young leaves are enclosed in a rosy sheath.



    Dwarf plantain like plants. Plants are grown for their colourful foliage and in some species have beautiful markings.

    Peperomia (Piperaceae)


    Small succulent herbaceous plant with ornamental foliage often prettily marked.

    Philodendron (Araceae)


    Shrubby creeping plants or stem less herbs valued for their graceful foliage that are leathery.

    Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae)

    Artillery plant

    A multitude of lime green leaves on short, arching stems gives this plant a fine textured fern like appearance. Common name is derived from the forcefully ejected pollen.

    Polyscias fruiticosa (Araliaceae)


    Erect shrub, leaves leathery, irregularly pinnate and the margin of the leaves often edged white and the rachis and the stalk are spotted.

    Scindapsus aureas

    Pothos or money plant

    Fleshy root climbing vine with thick long aerial roots. The leaves at the young are broadly ovate, waxy, green having yellow variegation. The mature leaves become 60 cm long and the blades become lobed or slashed.



    Quick growing ornamental foliage climber suitable for pots and trellies. Leaves are generally sagitate and are variegated.

    Tradescantia (Commelianceae)


    Low growing herbs with trailing or creeping habit with variegated foliage.


    Seasonal flowers or Annuals or are the group of plants which complete their life cycle in one season or one year. They are easily grown plants.  They vary widely in form, habit, colour

    and size of flowers. They beautify the surroundings and exhibit a good show of blooms at low cost and labour.

    Botanical name

    Common Name

    Colour range


    Ageartaum houstonianum

    Floss flower

    Blue, pink, white

    Grown for bedding purposes

    Althaea rosea

    Holly hock

    White, crimson, pink, yellow, red

    Can be used for screening purpose, background of border

    Antirrhinum majus

    Snap dragon

    White, yellow, pink, rose, mauve

    Bedding and pot growing good cut flower

    Bellis perennis

    English daisy

    White, blue, light pink

    For pot cultivation

    Calendula officinalis

    Pot marigold

    Yellow, orange

    Bedding, pot growing , good cut flower

    Callistephus chinensis


    White, pink, blue

    Bedding and pot growing, good cut flower

    Chrysanthemum coronarium

    Annual chrysanthemum

    White, yellow

    Bedding purpose, good loose flower

    Cosmos bipinnatus


    White, pink, yellow, mauve, magenta

    Can be grown throughout the year

    Dahlia variabilis


    Yellow, red, white, mauve, crimson

    Bedding and pot growing

    Dianthus caryophyllus


    White, pink, crimson, mauve, yellow, violet, red

    Bedding, pot growing good cut flower with long lasting vase life and scented flower

    Helichrysum bracteatum

    Straw flower


    Bedding purpose and good cut flower

    Petunia hybrida


    Red, blue, white, pink, violet

    Good for pot and bedding

    Phlox drummondii


    White, red, blue, violet, pink

    Dwarf plants are very showy when growing flower border, baskets and pots

    Salvia splendens


    Scarlet, pink, orange, white, yellow

    Easily grown in shady places and rockery

    Tagetes erecta

    African marigold

    Yellow, orange

    Easily grown, good for bedding grown for loose flower

    Tagetes patula

    French marigold

    Red, Orange, yellow

    For bedding and pot growing

    Verbena hybrida


    Purple, pink, blue, red, white

    Good for bedding, pots, hanging baskets, window boxes and rockery

    Viola tricolor


    Yellow, blue, red, purple, violet and bicolour

    Sunny site is preferred, good for bedding and pot

    1. Example of a tree with scentul flowers
    a. Mimusops elengi                 b. Grevillia robusta
    c. Albizzia lebbele                   d. Caisuarina equisettifolia
    2. Jacaranda mimosifolia produces _____ coloured flowers
    a. blue b. white            c. yellow          d. red
    3. Nerium belongs to the family
    a. Rubiaceae               b. Apocyanaceae
    c. Verbanaceae          d. Caesalpineae
    4. Scientific name of rangoom creeper
    a. Thunbergia grandiflore                    b. Quisqualis indica
    c. Petrea volubilis                               d. Ipomoea cairica
    5. Sandaspus aurus in _________
    a. Crotton                    b. Elephant car
    c. Money plant            d. English Dairy


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